Solid Waste Management (SWM) is one among the basic essential services provided by the Municipal Corporation to keep city clean and hygienic. The present scenario of most of the towns in India shows the same dismal picture due to insufficient resources, unscientific and outdated technology. High cost for management of services lack of citizen partnership and poor efficiency. This has lead to unaesthetic living conditions in most of the Indian cities and towns. On the other hand municipal law governing the local bodies does not have adequate provisions to address the problem of SEM.
India the world’ s second highest populated country is a land of various physiographic, climatic, geographic, ecological, social, cultural and linguistic characteristics. Thus a common of solid waste management does not suit every Indian city. Also, due to rapid urbanization in cities over last 10 years, cities are mounted with the problem of SWM. The urban population has grown five fold in last six decades with 285.35 million people living in urban areas ( as per the 2001 Census). The No. of town and cities have increased to 4378 of which 393 are Class-I town, 401 are Class-II towns, 1151 are class-III and remaining are classified as small towns with population ranging between 5000-20,000. The no. of metropolitan cities having million plus population has increased to 35 as per 2001 Census, and this has also seen growing public concern with exponential increase in sanitation and environmental issues.
An analysis of data available with the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) shows that waste generation has been count to be a functional of consumption and production activity, and thus strongly affected by household income and local production of goods and services. It clearly stats that waste generation is directly related with the consumption and production of cities, hence, small and medium scale towns tend to generate smaller per capita loads and therefore proportionally less waste. The average waste quantities in small and medium towns vary between 200 to 600 gms/capita/day depending upon the type of Urban Local Body (ULB) by population.