In 1993, the Government of India passed a series of constitutional reforms, which were intended to empower and democratize India’s rural representative bodies – the Panchayats. The 73rd Amendment to the Constitution formally recognized a third tier of government at the sub-State level, thereby creating the legal conditions for local self-rule – or Panchayati Raj. Since this time, the process of decentralization has been highly variable, ranging from ambitious attempts at Gram Swaraj (or village self-rule) in Madhya Pradesh to political re-centralization in Karnataka. Early experiences have also revealed considerable uncertainty and confusion about the precise political, administrative and fiscal powers Panchayats have in relation to the States, line ministries, and local user groups. This, in part, reflects the fact that the 73rd Amendment gave the State governments considerable autonomy to interpret and implement the constitutional reforms.
Political decentralization transfers policy and legislative powers from central government to autonomous, lower-level assemblies and local councils that have been democratically elected by their constituencies.
Administrative decentralization places planning and implementation responsibility in the hands of locally situated civil servants and these local civil servants are under the jurisdiction of elected local governments.
Fiscal decentralization accords substantial revenue and expenditure authority to intermediate and governments.
On 23rd and 24th April is an historical day for Indian women. On this day she get decentralization power in politics From an early stage in this process, the reduction of poverty and the empowerment politically marginal groups in India have been strongly associated with at least some decentralization. Perhaps the most enduring decentralization in India is Gandhi’s vision of village Swaraj, in which universal economic self-sufficiency and village democracy would take the place of caste, untouchability other forms of rural exploitation. Although this vision has been hotly debated since time of independence (see, especially, Ambedkar’s debates with Gandhi, cited in 2000a: 5), Gandhi’s vision has had an enduring effect on the ways in which decentralization been argued and defended in Indian politics. Beyond the symbolic imagery of the village republic,’ an important element of this relates to the idea that formal, constitutional in India’s administrative system can have a lasting impact on informal and unequal structures caste, class and gender. The 73rd and 74th Amendments . . . are designed to promote self-governance through statutory recognition of local bodies. The latter are expected to move away from their traditional role of simply executing the programs handed down to them by higher levels of government and to formulate and implement their own programs of economic development and social justice.
An underlying hypothesis here is that strong mechanisms of accountability will improve the distribution of benefits to groups that are traditionally marginalized in local political processes. CCBOS make a community who realize the govt. for participation, political transformation and the role that political parties can play in improving the effectiveness and accountability of local government bodies.
1. active participation among broad elements of society, involving activities such as voting, campaigning, attending meetings, running for office, lobbying representatives, etc.;
2. fiscal and political support from higher level authorities within government;
3. the existence of competitive political parties whose legitimacy depends at least in part on the support of the poor; and
4. deeper economic transformations, which embolden traditionally subordinate groups to challenge local authority structures.
Our community approach to understanding the relationship between decentralization and accountability is comparative and empirical. decentralization can affect accountability and participation at the local level. Our principal unit of analysis is the Gram Panchayat and within it the Gram Sabha.